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Currently, there are different tests designed to detect the SARS-COV2 virus infection, causing the COVID-19 disease or its trail in the organism. We have most of those tests.
This is the gold standard test for the virus detection. It detects genetic material fragments and shows the highest specificity and sensibility. The sample consists also in a nasopharyngeal hyssop and the results are revealed in 24 hours. The price for this test is 109 euros.
It detects specific fragments of the virus. It is a rapid test with a high specificity and sensibility. The sample consists on a nasopharyngeal hyssop and the results are revealed in 15 minutes. The price for this test is 45 euros.
Specificity refers to the test capacity of determine a positive patient as such, while sensibility refers to its capacity to determine a negative patient as such.
Since December 10, the Spanish government accepts the RT-LAMP as a diagnostic method for COVID-19. Rizo-mediated isothermal amplification, or LAMP, is an assay that can be used for viral detection that allows faster analysis of genetic material than the PCR test and has been used successfully in the detection of the COVID-19 virus.
It is a diagnostic method for detection of COVID 19 through a nasopharyngeal swab sample, an alternative to RT-PCR, with similar sensitivity and specificity and results in less time. The sample is processed by trained personnel, and through an isothermal amplification process, the SARS-CoV-2 RNA, present in the sample, is detected.
What countries accept the LAMP?
UK, U.S, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, Scotland, Aruba, Hongkong.
The COVID-19 antigen test is a rapid test, but less reliable than RT-PCR or LAMP-RT, since it depends on the antigen load that the patient presents at the time of performing the test, having a high sensitivity and specificity between the first 3-5 days of infection, and that will decrease in the consecutive days, being able to give a false negative.
The PCR-RT and LAMP-RT tests detect the COVID 19 RNA present in the infected person from the third day of infection to 3-4 weeks after it.
If you show symptoms that related to COVID-19 disease, you should have an active infection detection test done (PCR or antigen test). If you think you might have been in close contact with a positive, you should isolate yourself and wait for a couple of days while on guard for the symptoms that may occur. You should wait some days before having a test done.
Otherwise, you might test negative due to a low viral load or incubation period and result in a false negative, showing symptoms or spreading the virus after the negative result.
These tests detect the trail of the virus as it passes through the organism. It normally detects two type of antibodies: IgM and IgG (both included in the same test).
The IgM antibodies appear in the first days of the infection, even while it is on course while the IgG antibodies take longer to appear and they normally do so at the latest steps of it or even once it is solved.
Our test includes both antibodies and costs 65 euros. For this one we will take a blood sample. Regarding the results, we find the following possibilities:
- IgM-, IgG-: the patient does not have antibodies. This could mean that there has not been any infection at all or that it happened long time ago. This does not necessarily mean that there is no immunity.
- IgM +, IgG –: the patient could have active infection. It can probably be in the first stages of it and could develop symptoms soon if not already present.
- IgM +, IgG+: the patient is in the last stages of the infection or it is already solved. There could be immunity for future infections.
- IgM-, IgG+: the patient has overcome the infection and has defenses towards it. There could be immunity for future infections, and it is considered as not contagious.
All the results of this tests should be taken with caution and the information provided with the results certificate should be read.
COVID-19 is a respiratory and, occasionally multisystemic disease caused by the novel SARS-COV2 Coronavirus. It can develop with no symptoms, with mild symptoms such as cough or fever or with severe clinic including pneumonia, coagulation disorders and other unspecific symptoms.
First data of SARS-COV2 virus happens to be related to Chinese city Wuhan market. However, this does not seem to be the origin of the virus but one of the main spreading focus.
It is very likely that the virus jumped from some wild animal species to ours. This is not new either with COVID-19 but has happened in numerous occasions with lots of other diseases, from other animals to humans and between other animal species.
Initially, COVID-19 was considered a respiratory disease. We now know that if can rather affect some other organs and systems. Virus shows affinity for some cell markers located in different organs and therefore can cause symptoms in them. That is why unspecific symptoms may occur such as digestive ones. Fever is one of the most common symptoms for lots of infections and it is not different with this disease.
Symptoms can vary a lot with the COVID-19 disease. However, most frequents are mild to high fever, dry cough and difficulty breathing. If you show any of these, you should have a test done and isolate yourself. If you show severe difficulty breathing you should contact emergency services immediately.
Many respiratory tract infections affect these senses considering they cause pharyngeal inflammation. SARS-COV2 could also affect the nerve terminations in tongue and olfactory epithelium, causing this smell and taste loss, one of the main symptoms of the disease.
Arguably, severe COVID-19 complications occur due to a exacerbated immune response. Considering the kids have unmatured immune systems, these complications are rather uncommon in them. This is one of the main theories, but there could be other explanations for this matter and further investigation should be done.
Incubation period goes from 2 to 14 days, being 5 days the average time for the symptoms to occur.
The incubation period lasts 5 days average but it can go from 2 to 14 days. After this time, symptomatic stage occurs, and its duration can vary widely. In the asymptomatic or mild symptoms cases, infection is normally solved 10 days after the first symptoms.
SARS-COV2 virus is spread by small particles or aerosols expelled while breathing or talking. Occasionally, infection can happen after contact with contaminated surfaces, but the main infection route is the one described before.
Potentially, someone infected with SARS-COV2 could spread the virus from the very first moment it enters the body. However, infection seems to happen more frequently from the first days before the development of the symptoms until some days after their disappearance.
Asymptomatic patients can equally spread the virus, even thought this is more intense whilst in symptomatic stage.
If you have tested positive in one of the active infection detection tests (PCR or antigen test) you should isolate inside you home or in one of the rooms if you share the house with more people.
It mild symptoms occur, such as fever, it can be treated with paracetamol and other support therapy. It is recommended to minimize the contact with other people living in the same house.
In case of severe symptoms, such as difficult breathing, you should contact emergency services (112). Quarantine should last at least 10 days after the positive result or after the first symptoms, always considering that there are no symptoms within the last 3 days of it.
For more information, we recommend you check on the national authorities’ websites and recommendations. (https://www.comunidad.madrid/servicios/salud/covid-19-prevencion-consejos-ciudadania).
You are considered a close contact if you have spent 15 minutes or more within 1.5 – 2 meters in the two previous days of a person tested positive or with symptoms. This is considering that a correct use of the mask can not be guaranteed (mask covering completely mouth and nose).
If you have been in close contact with a positive in the previous two days of the test result, you should isolate yourself for 10 days if symptoms do not occur. You should also take an active infection detection test a couple of days after the contact to be sure of the infection state. A negative result does not necessarily mean that the disease will not develop.
No test is perfect 100% of the time and this are no different. However, all the tests being done currently in qualified facilities have shown extremely high levels of accuracy in numerous scientific reports and studies.
False negatives occur more frequently than false positives and this is because it is easier for the test to miss the virus while in the organism than to test positive when there is no virus at all. False negatives are of bigger concern than false positives since infected people may thing that they are not and could spread the virus to others without noticing.
Absolutely all the infectious diseases show a variable percentage of asymptomatic infections. This is not new with COVID-19. The problem with this is that asymptomatic people do not know that they are infected and could spread the virus without noticing. If you think you could be asymptomatic you should have one of the active infection detection tests done, either PCR o antigen test.
COVID-19 is a disease and, as such, it can not be diagnosed only by a test, no matter how accurate it is. All the diseases are diagnosed combining positive results in laboratory tests and study of clinical and epidemiological situation. These tests detect the virus or its trail after passing through the organism.
Therefore, once you test positive, there is a huge chance that you are infected and could be infectious to others. However, you could test positive due to low viral loads in the body or a recent contact that will not turn into a real infection or just due to viral fragments. Testing positive does not mean that you will develop the disease or spread the virus, but chances are high and therefore you should apply caution.
You can get your test done in public or private facilities. To get tested in public ones you should call by phone with your health insurance or health card and wait for the appointment and then for the results. Due to current situation, long delays may occur. In private facilities times are normally shorter.
In our Clinic you can have your tests done with no previous appointment and you will get your results within 24h as latest.
When a disease affects a specific region of the world it can be considered and epidemy. When it happens in different regions with no apparent relation between them it is a pandemic. This is what happened with COVID-19.
Considering the infection route of this novel coronavirus SARS-COV2, main tools to prevent its spread are still the correct use of facial masks (covering mouth and nose completely), sanitizing hands and other objects and keeping social distance. Fortunately, this are easy tasks and, if we all adhere strictly to this measures, we can control the virus spread.
Currently in the European Union there are three authorised vaccines. Pfizers, Moderna and AstraZeneca. Pfizers vaccine is the one being most represented in Europe and AstraZeneca is not recommended for its use in people over 55. This does not mean that it is unsafe, but that available data is insufficient to certify its safety in this age group.
However, all the authorised vaccines have gone under extreme surveillance and have all the safety warrantees. Despite the fact of being authorised in a short time, they have gone under more strict studies than any other drug available in the market.